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The solution to save power

31/07/2017    1409

Savings in general and energy in particular is National policy issues, to make long during the power consumption, not only perform at the lack of electricity. Savings in general and energy in particular is National policy issues, to make long during the power consumption, not only perform at the lack of electricity.

I. The energy saving measures power in the agency, the office:


In order for the implementation of power saving in offices, workplaces and effective long-term stability, we need to proceed with all of the above two solutions: technical solutions and administrative solutions.
1. Technical solutions:
We know that the electricity used in offices, workplaces are not convenient electric charge in family activities that are serving the electrical work, the work of staff in the agency. Thus, technical solutions to save power while ensuring efficient power saving, the environment and ensure the effective work of staff in offices, workplaces, the steps are as follows:
a. When conducting power saving is the first organization to examine the situation using the full power of today's offices:
- The layout of electrical equipment: lights, fans, computers, air conditioners. .. (Rational, non-waste in accordance with the standards of the work unit).
- The advantage of natural light and natural air cooling.
- The use of electrical equipment (lights, fans, air conditioners, copiers, printers, computers, etc ..) in the agency's staff.
- The power grid across agencies: any overloading of the wire, any old piece of wire to power detectors, joints, contact breaker, breaker bad heating source causing power loss, instead, to fix.
b. Review the use of power through checks and proposed technical solutions to save power.
Ø Expand or opening windows and glass ceiling including (if possible) to take advantage of natural light.
Ø Replace all incandescent light bulbs (if any) with compact fluorescent light bulbs or fluorescent lights to save electricity.
Ø Replace light bulbs neon tubes older generation 40W, 20W bulbs neon tube new generation 36W, 18W and replacement ballasts with electronic ballasts from power-saving (when replacing a ferromagnetic ballasts with electronic ballast Prince of 40W lamps, each time we save electricity 12,9Wh 4Wh and lazy by not carrying electrical resistance).
Ø Put the tray, taken in the light pan missing to increase the reflection of light and adjust the lamp mounted at a height suitable for high light reflectivity. Make each one switches on lights, open.
Ø Implementation of the two modes of light in a room: go back to living light and light work. Using neon tube light enough to hang on the wall go back to living and compact lamp for each desk staff (only enabled when the work) Arrange lighting will save a lot of energy.
Example: A 10m2 office, Statistics 4 workbench for 4 persons must be arranged so as many lights as standard?
method Po power units (W / m2) to find the number of bulbs needed equipment.
Pt = P / S (w / m)
P1, total wattage of all bulbs - Watt.
S: Size of the room (m2)
According to the availability of technical manuals, Po for office work is Po = 15
So: P: Po. S = 15 X 10 = 150W
- If a layout style lighting modes (both living and working medium) and 36W fluorescent tube lamp must be arranged: (1)
N = Pt / Pd = 150/36 = 4.13
~ 4 balls (4 x 36W = 144W)
- If the layout style, the two-mode light only (2)
* A neon tube lights to light 36W = 36W activities
* 4 compact desk lamp for light work with each ball 15W: (15 x 4 = 60W) = 60W
So the arrangement (2) with (1), we save 96W
144-96 = 48W
Note: The savings per hour is 48Wh be taken concurrently with the coefficient k 1 of 4 compact fluorescent light bulbs (k = 1), practically at k <1.
Ø in the room had air conditioners need:
- Strengthen the tightness of the window
- Put the automatic shut the doors
- Rearranged air conditioning (if necessary) to take advantage of maximum cool air outside.
- Air conditioning is only set at 25 - 27oC. in the fitting rooms have air conditioning more then switch on each machine set at a temperature of 25 - 27oC, after 1/2 hour if the air reached 25 - 27oC out loud. The machine goes off excess.
Ø 50% of the morning corridors, toilets and instead of compact fluorescent light 9W.
Ø Network 'grid in agency
- Replace the string section is overloaded (if any) by wire with a larger cross section
- Replace the old belt clip, crushed, new wiring and electric leakage by section
- Repair of joints, contact the place in the breaker, fuse, plug is overheating.
Ø meter Treo accessories for every room, committee prior to saving measures to know the consumption of each department prior to and after conducting electricity saving measures and later to assign quotas monthly power consumption for each department.
2. Solution administrative and management:
The solution is to build an administrative rules to use in offices, workplaces, in order to force employees in agencies must be aware of, duty and responsibility to save, ensure that the power savings in discipline stable and lasting.
The content of the rules include:
a. Regulation of the regime and duration of construction equipment in offices as:
- The electrical equipment in the department when there is no work in the room who had to cut off power.
- The table lamp on the desk only to be turned on while working (read text documents, computer typing ...)
- Lights corridors, protected only:
* The summer: Turn off at 5am to 19h
* Winter: 18h turned off at 6am.
- Air conditioning is only used in the summer and set to 27oC temperature 25oC- and cut power when not working in the room or working time management and communication HLQT room temperature set (25 - 27oC) this.
- Computers are only used for the agency, the work done to cut electricity and may not be used for other individuals (chess, tracking stocks, stock etc ...)
- Copiers, printers are only used for the work of the agency, not to be used for personal business. But all the work to cut off the power, not to soak the phone.
- Machine antihypertensive increased voltage drop (survolteur) for devices with voltage stability as the computer (if any) must cut off the power grid network has enough voltage and stability.
- Prohibition of cooking power agencies
- Prohibit use of agency fridge
- Quota for the power consumption of electricity every month. Winter and summer for each department and agency on the basis of overall savings of 10% compared with the previous and on the basis of the implementation of technical solutions to save power.
- The department heads are responsible for managing power consumption targets monthly departmental his power under sub-meter hanging in his department and be responsible for this expenditure.
- Head (chief VP) is responsible for managing the power level indicator in the meter every month and throughout the agency responsible for this indicator.
b. Mode test track:
- Administrative Management Division is responsible regularly monitored daily use of the equipment in accordance with the statutory period prescribed in the rules of agency and inform the authorities on the blackboard:
* Weekly violation mode and time using the electrical equipment of the department.
* Monthly violation spending power level assigned to the department.
- Unusual or recurring (3 months or 6 months) organized test group (including HLQT + room + Trade Union Party Committee) full authority to assess, shape, critique and summarize the payoff competition for power saving. The test set must be made in writing, report and inform leaders throughout the agency said.
c. Mode payoff and encourage emulation:
- Regularly set the example of good people and good deeds in saving electricity.
- The power-saving initiatives are effective in authority, must be rewarded in time and applied immediately.
- The payoff to save power must be based on the observance of the mode used, the electrical equipment in the rules, regulations and norms on power consumption assigned.
II. The energy saving measures power in the business and administrative areas:
There are many power-saving measures in the area of administrative career. The body design series such as not cooking in regional offices, working out of the room to turn off the fan, turn off air conditioners etc ... These measures have been talking a lot in the media the effective mass is not high because of the provisions set out without constant supervision and technical solutions, it requires initial investment is quite large. If the investment is not effective saving newspapers published (as in books, newspapers, people simply save power efficiency without regard to the amount of initial investment) .
Here introduce some simple solutions, inexpensive but effective in saving power in business and administrative areas:
1. The use of air conditioning (DHND):
In summer, the power load for DHND the largest percentage of the total load of the business and administrative areas (estimated 70-80%). Officer's office, we still have a habit of turning on DHND the fan off. This is a pretty big waste of energy. As is well known, the heat sink surface phenomenon largely determined by the coefficient of dissipation losses. If the air is still, this coefficient is very small, but if the air movement (fan), this coefficient will be quite large. Since the dissipation coefficient big damage so even set the temperature of the air conditioner more or less, people still feel cool. If we defined the summer all administrative and professional bodies must run DHND enclosed fan (low speed), the individual amounts of cooling power can save 10 - 15%. This is a very nice bonus for budget savings, not to mention the power of the above can also be used on other necessities.
To support the above-mentioned measures, the State should promulgate regulations for civil servants dress in summer. Our country is a tropical country, the climate is hot but the senior officials and managers often have a habit of wearing a suit and tie for adding the '' serious'. This practice contributed to the increase use more power. If summer all officers and employees are united shirts in the office (room to take off his coat), the power consumption further reduced. Japan is a Asian powers, the climate is very cold, but they were soon aware of this. the Prime Minister of Japan in the previous term, Mr Koizumi, was first performed exemplary. So why do not we learn they? it's not a lack of power in Japan, but only because they have a sense of saving electricity than us.
Two-way air conditioners must be used appropriately. Energy used for heating of this machine is quite large, no less cooling energy. Winter in our country the average daytime temperature is about 15 ° C, the temperature is not too low as to use heaters in the winter. Rather, the tropical climate of Vietnam and the current power shortage situation, it is best to prohibit running heating in winter. If all officers and employees are '' please '' do this, it will save some extra power to the grid again inadequate capital of the country.
2. Restrict or prohibit the use of electricity for purposes other than work:
in the advanced industrial countries disciplinary production is iron discipline in working hours staff and not made anything other than its primary function. in Vietnam, we are not. During working hours phenomenon still sitting chatting, drinking tea, playing suitcase (g) on the computer or open the network to track the stock market etc .. During lunch breaks have also enlisted the plug electric stove get food to cook for the palate. All of the above are the habits that we should cease. This is especially necessary when Vietnam has officially joined the WTO, a 'playground' to the working style and the new science seriously expect to survive in the global competition. The above phenomenon has long caused considerable waste of energy. should the need for stricter regulations and more specifically, supervision but really, trarth condition called "power saver '' in general.
3. Regulation disconnecting the socket after work:
There are two ways to disconnect power to the equipment. The first way is to press the switch, the second is to unplug the power cord from the wall outlet. The first way is not absolute breaker for leakage current is still running through the switch. Only the latter was the only absolute power interruption.
In the administrative authority of a country now has tens of thousands of electric toys like that, that is: computers, communications equipment, copiers, electric fan, desk lamp ... If all we are unplug the power cord from the wall outlet after work, it will save a significant number of power. Moreover, Vietnam is a country with a humid climate, power consumption due to leakage currents are much higher as compared to the dry climes.
Another point to discuss is for computers. During the universal computerization today, the average administrative agencies must have at least a few dozen computers. Taking in the whole country, this can amount to a significant figure. Often when working on the computer is complete, usually shutdown by '' Shut Down '', off the screen, and then let go so that. The manipulation assured that the entire machine is turned off. The reality is not so! While the CPU signal is turned off, the screen was all bright, but still a small electric current running through the machine. It's not that the leakage current is a current standing. But its intensity is not great but it was a total combined value significantly, causing wasteful vain. For other electronic devices such as remote control televisions, lights, fans should not wait for the lamp mode (red light). Each circuit standby consumption 8W lamp, equivalent to a compact 7W bulb. The total energy consumed by the lamp in the water waiting is a pretty big number.
Recently, there are countries in Europe have conducted this pilot. They ordered in administrative and professional areas and parts of the business office, officials after leaving the office to withdraw the power cord from the wall outlet. The result is the amount of monthly power consumption reduced to 10%.
If our country applied, can do other more scientific way. Should separate power supply for the sockets of the agency into a separate circuit with circuit breaker. After work, the direct power of the agencies tasked Cup circuit breaker, to the close of working hours. This is the most thorough way trarth also be wasteful phenomena in lunchtime that we have discussed in Section 2.
4. Arrangement of lighting in the room right to work:
in advanced countries, the luminance of the office must comply with the provisions of the State. There are rooms where high luminance, also the room just enough illumination. Room to room lighting such as engineering, graphic room, hall ... The room has sufficient lighting as font storage, living room, lounge, toilet junk room ... illuminance this vapor is measured in lux design must not be estimated by eye as in our country.
If appropriate lighting layout, the energy consumption of business administrative areas will be reduced from 1-2%.
5. Saving electricity through sanctions:
The last issue is the power savings can be made possible through sanctions. For this we should build a norm of consumption to the administrative offices and business in the country.
Once you have a reasonable level and to get people to admit, the State does not necessarily have the daily checks with just sanctions are sufficient. At that each administrative unit can cause a certain level of electricity exchange. The largest payroll unit can be divided into several functional blocks to carry this out. If the unit is the last month to complete the workload that uses less electricity will be rewarded appropriately. If you use more, it must be deducted from the salary fund. Just have specified above, though not shouting, calling, people will voluntarily save their breath and remind each other to save electricity.
Above are some proposals to save power during the current energy shortage. Its characteristics are still achieve power savings as the other measures at no (or very little cost) originally invested. This is a very fit tight budget situation of our country. Of course correction mode operation, the struggle with the old habits are hard work and time consuming, but if the managers at all levels and all my people agreed and determined to make it in next time will save a considerable amount of energy to the national economy.
III. The energy saving measures in the home phone:
To save energy used in the home, you should do the following:
1. Select the device to save power:
The electrical equipment, as a new generation of power savings as high. When choosing rotating electrical equipment (pump, electric fans, washing machines ...), you should select more step motor speed or inverter comes to saving electricity. With the lamp, you should use thin and compact fluorescent lamps instead of light bulb light bulb for 3-4 times power consumption.
2. Install a rational, scientific:
This measure also contributes greatly to save electricity. Example: Pumps placed in the proper location will help your tank filled more quickly. The building should be painted or wall light roller, take advantage of natural light to save a portion of the light power.
3. The main routine use of electrical appliances in the home:
Refrigerator restriction on the cabinet to help take power. The temperature inside the refrigerator up to 3 mode - 6doC. With the frozen mode to - 15doC to -18doC. Just colder 10doC is consuming 25% more power. You should also regularly check the rubber gasket, if it is detached parts of the refrigerator compressor will have to work very expensive electricity.
Air conditioning: Let temperatures above 20doC. Just as you have a higher 10doC save 10% power. If you regularly clean the filters will save from 5-7% power. If you put the machine away from the wall you will save 20-25% energy. So if you turn off the air conditioner 1 hour or more away.
Fans: Should the fan running at the proper speed to save power for the fan running as fast as electricity costs. Remember to unplug the remote control at the fan after each use.
Computers: Computer monitors have higher brightness, color is as dark as power consumption. So turn off the computer if you do not intend to use within 15 minutes. Please select the power saving mode in the PC (Save Screen) to both protect the machine, just about 55% reduction in power consumption during use pause (down-time).
Irons: Do not use the in-room table turned on the air conditioner or wet clothing. Wipe the metal surface of the table is the table that will operate more efficiently. After a power outage, you can get 2 sets of clothes is because the heat of the table is slow.
Washer: Washer is only used when there is enough clothes to wash and hot water wash mode used when absolutely necessary.
Microwave: No microwave in rooms with air-conditioning, not near other electrical appliances to avoid affecting the functioning of the electrical appliances.
Televisions: Do not let the screen is too bright mode to help take power. Do not turn off the TV using the remote control that should be turned off by pressing the button on the machine. Do not watch TV while connected to the video. Select size TV should fit your home area as large as for the TV power consumption.